Do women earn 80 cents on the dollar compared with men, as is commonly cited
? Or is the pay gap just pennies, as one recent survey found
? Or do women earn a shocking 49 cents on the dollar, as calculated by the social scientists Stephen Rose and Heidi Hartmann in a new analysis
published by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research?
The answer is all of the above. Each number highlights a different aspect of a complicated and nuanced situation—one reflecting not only sexism and bias but the choices made more or less freely by millions of women in hundreds of thousands of workplaces. Rose and Hartmann’s number is lowest because it is in some ways most holistic.
By holistic, Rose and Hartman looked at the lifetime earnings of women, who are likely to take long stretches out of work when raising children or caring for aging parents. [Emphasis mine.]
Rose and Hartmann’s study found that women’s penalties for leaving the workforce have increased: Women who took a year off from work in the 15-year period starting in 2000 had annual earnings 39 percent lower than women who worked continuously over that time period, a gap that was just 12 percent for women working in the 15-year period starting in 1968. “Women’s earnings losses for time out are almost always greater than men’s,” they find.
According to Rose, these facts suggest that the most accurate way to compare women’s and men’s earnings is to take the career-long view. “When you look at all women versus all men over time, the gap is 51 cents,” he said, referring to the 15-year figure.
That’s a big gap to fill, and we will need to create across the board paid family leave and child-care subsidies if we want to close it. There is no way to lean in to eliminate this wage gap.
“When a team was composed of individuals who were highly socially perceptive, on average, the team performed well on the cognitive tests that we have given. Being socially perceptive means that you are able to accurately infer other people’s mental and emotional states, so you’re aware of other people’s feelings and you know what other people are thinking,” she [Kim] said.
The researchers also noted that the ratio of females on a team mattered, with more women on a team linked to higher team performance.
Temporary workers had been largely excluded from policy changes announced earlier this month.
So they are still bound by forced arbitration agreements in the case of sexual harassment.
The rise in phone interviewing is, in many ways, counterintuitive. More advanced hiring techniques exist, such as automated video or text interviews. Some companies, though, have shifted back to voice screenings, finding them more effective, particularly for hourly roles.
The Wisconsin job-recruiting firm Cielo, which hires 150,000 workers annually on behalf of clients, has found applicants far more likely to complete an audio interview than a video one, said Adam Godson, the company’s senior vice president of global technology solutions.
Over the phone, applicants needn’t worry about their appearance or their location, nor do they have to have access to a smartphone or a computer with a camera, Mr. Godson said.