The connection of Jews with Hebron of course goes all the way back to Abraham. He purchased the Cave of Machpelah as a tomb for his wife Sarah, and after that, it became the tomb for all of the early patriarchs. You also see something very interesting about middle eastern culture, and how negotiations for a sale price are made between friends and/or when there is great mutual respect. Ephron the Hittite offers to GIVE Abraham the cave as a gift, but Abraham refuses and asks him to tell him the price for the land. The first offer to give the item away is meant as a show of respect, it is not really a sincere offer to give the item without cost. Four thousand years later, you will still find that this way of negotiating or fixing a price between friends is common in the Middle East.
Then Abraham rose and bowed down before the people of the land, the Hittites. He said to them, “If you are willing to let me bury my dead, then listen to me and intercede with Ephron son of Zohar on my behalf so he will sell me the cave of Machpelah, which belongs to him and is at the end of his field. Ask him to sell it to me for the full price as a burial site among you.”
Ephron the Hittite was sitting among his people and he replied to Abraham in the hearing of all the Hittites who had come to the gate of his city. “No, my lord,” he said. “Listen to me; I give you the field, and I give you the cave that is in it. I give it to you in the presence of my people. Bury your dead.”
Again Abraham bowed down before the people of the land and he said to Ephron in their hearing, “Listen to me, if you will. I will pay the price of the field. Accept it from me so I can bury my dead there.”
Ephron answered Abraham, “Listen to me, my lord; the land is worth four hundred shekels of silver, but what is that between you and me? Bury your dead.”
Abraham agreed to Ephron’s terms and weighed out for him the price he had named in the hearing of the Hittites: four hundred shekels of silver, according to the weight current among the merchants.
So Ephron’s field in Machpelah near Mamre—both the field and the cave in it, and all the trees within the borders of the field—was deeded to Abraham as his property in the presence of all the Hittites who had come to the gate of the city. Afterward Abraham buried his wife Sarah in the cave in the field of Machpelah near Mamre (which is at Hebron) in the land of Canaan. So the field and the cave in it were deeded to Abraham by the Hittites as a burial site.
Genesis 23:7-20 (NIV)
Hebron is also the city that Absalom rebelled against his father David from, when he attempted to crown himself king over his father (2 Samuel 15:10).