After an entire generation of effort, major failures in Kyoto (in the 1990s), Copenhagen (in the 2000s), Paris (in the 2010s), and now Glasgow (in the 2020s) have put the world on a path to warm by 2.7 degrees Celsius by 2100
, nearly twice the redline temperature rise that science says would give us a chance to preserve human civilization in line with environmental and social justice.
Bowing to national interests of the major polluting countries, the COP process has always been voluntary, based on words and pledges, not binding peer-led enforcement. Those pledges collectively
have the world on a path to emitting 40% more carbon in 2030 than in 1990 when the process began
, and nearly twice the level that would put us on a safe climate path.